Through "today in history", we can see the future from the past and change the future from the present.
Connecting computer networks together is called "network interconnection", and connecting the "network interconnection" covering the whole world on its basis is called the Internet. Today is September 2, 2021, the 52nd year of the birth of the Internet. The development of the Internet is actually a process of integrated development of the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and the real economy. In this half century, the Internet has experienced four stages: digitization of traditional advertising industry, digitization of content industry, digitization of life service industry and digitization of everything; Today is the golden age of the vigorous development of artificial intelligence.
Our lives have become very different because of the Internet. Some people say that the Internet has helped promote biological evolution because manufacturing tools are a symbol of human evolution. So, what other key events have taken place on September 2 in the history of science and technology?
Andrew 'Andy' Stephen grove was born on September 2, 1936 and died on March 21, 2016 at the age of 79. He is a Hungarian born Jewish American businessman, engineer, writer and scientific pioneer in the semiconductor industry. Andy was a former CEO of Intel and a pioneer in turning Intel into a giant.
Andy is the first employee to join Intel through recruitment. Under his leadership, Intel has launched 386 and Pentium processors. During Andy's tenure as CEO, Intel's stock value increased by 2400%, making it one of the most valuable companies in the world.
"Success breeds complacency, and complacency breeds failure. Only paranoia can survive. "
“Success breeds complacency. Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive.”
Andy Grove's maxim was written into his best-selling book only the paranoid survive, in which he made his precious experience and systematic thinking public and pointed out the invincible way in the most terrible environment and the most frequent changes.
During his 11 years as CEO of Intel, Andy Grove was pushed to the brink of strategic turning point many times. The most dangerous one was in the mid-1980s. Japanese memory manufacturers almost forced Intel into a dead corner. Intel finally had to quit the production of memory chips and turn to another relatively new territory, namely the development of microprocessors. Thinking about the strategic turning point has helped Intel survive in the fierce competition and become the world's largest chip manufacturer.
During the chip crisis in 1994, Andy played a key role in the negotiations between Intel and IBM, allowing IBM to use only Intel microprocessors in all new personal computers. His leadership style has been criticized as too strong and harsh. This legend has inspired generations of technical experts, entrepreneurs and business leaders and made far-reaching contributions to this industry and the personal computer market.
On September 2, 1969, in the laboratory of UCLA, about 20 researchers completed the data transmission test between two computers, namely ARPANET. It is the rudiment of the Internet. This day is also regarded as the "birth day" of the Internet.
"ARPA" is the abbreviation of the advanced research project agency of the United States. One of his core organizations is ipto information processing technologies office, which has been paying attention to computer graphics, network communication, supercomputer and other research topics.
ARPANET was put into use in the first phase in 1969. At that time, only four computers were connected, distributed at the University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Santa Barbara, Stanford University and the University of Utah. However, ARPANET can only communicate with computers within the network, and different computer networks still cannot communicate with each other. TCP / IP protocol (standard for communication of various parts of the Internet) born in 1974 defines the method of transmitting information between computer networks.
The birth and development of the Internet has brought unprecedented changes to human society and pushed mankind into an information age full of vitality and vitality. Nowadays, China's Internet economy is booming, and mobile payment, sharing economy and online shopping are gradually integrated into people's life. When did the Internet enter China? The origin must be traced back to 1986.
WU Weimin sent an e-mail from Beijing to ALEPH's leader, Nobel laureate Jack Steinberger at the Western European nuclear center in Geneva, Switzerland, marking China's first international e-mail. Since then, China began to build the Internet. Until April 1994, NCFC took the lead in directly connecting with NSFNET in the United States, realizing the full-function network connection between China and the Internet, marking the birth of China's earliest international Internet, which is also the first wave of China's Internet.
China's Internet has experienced three waves, and the arrival of the era of artificial intelligence undoubtedly symbolizes the arrival of the fourth wave. So, when did you first contact the Internet? In this issue of voting, we have prepared five options. Welcome to participate in voting and comments to talk about your experience when you first met the Internet.
Source: Wikipedia, Baidu Encyclopedia
Fifty years ago today, on September 2, 1969, the first ATM was unveiled in New York.
ATM is the abbreviation of automatic teller machine, which means automatic teller machine. It is a highly sophisticated mechatronics equipment, which uses magnetic card or smart IC card to store user information, inputs password through encrypted keyboard (EPP), and then verifies and carries out various transactions through the bank's internal network. The emergence of ATM has reduced the working pressure of bank counter staff and provided safe and convenient financial service experience for mankind.
When it comes to banks and ATMs, it is inseparable from the discussion on the operating system market war. ATM has four choices in operating system: DOS, OS / 2, Linux and windows. Due to the single task of DOS, it finally lost to OS / 2 in the market competition of ATM platform. At present, its proportion is less than 1%, which is only used on the old machines of a few manufacturers such as express; OS / 2 was once the mainstream. Now IBM no longer provides OS / 2 support, so it has lost the market; Linux is starting, and now the mainstream of the market is Windows system, most of which adopts embedded XP system.
Unfortunately, with the development of the times, people's lifestyle and quality have been greatly improved. In recent years, online payment methods such as WeChat and Alipay have become the mainstream of people's life. The utilization rate of cash has become lower and lower, and the utilization rate of ATM machines in banks has also decreased. Many banks even choose to withdraw ATM machines because their business has shrunk. These operating system wars around the banking system have gradually become a thing of the past, and windows xp is about to lose its last post after 20 years.
Source: Wikipedia, Baidu Encyclopedia
UTF-8 (universal character set / Unicode transformation format) is a variable length character encoding for Unicode. It can be used to represent any character in the Unicode standard, and the first byte in its encoding is still compatible with ASCII, so that the original software dealing with ASCII characters can continue to use without or with only a few modifications. Therefore, it has gradually become the preferred coding in e-mail, web pages and other applications for storing or transmitting text.
On September 2, 1992, the initial version of UTF-8 was born. Kenneth Thompson and rob pike of Bell Labs designed this code. Nowadays, UTF-8 is the most commonly used code on the world wide web and is used by most web pages. These two designers of UTF-8 are legends in the scientific and technological circles:
Ken Thompson was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. He jointly developed the UNIX operating system. In 1969, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie created the B and c languages at Bell Labs. Since then, he has jointly developed the MULTICS operating system. Ken Thompson was the winner of the Turing prize in 1983. He and rob Parker created the go language together after entering Google.
Rob Parker is a Canadian software engineer and writer. He is famous for his work at Bell Labs and his participation in Bell Labs project 9 and the creation of Inferno operating system. In addition to UTF-8, he also jointly developed limbo programming language and BLIT graphics terminal of UNIX operating system; In addition, he is also the only inventor of the X-window system protocol.
Rob Parker wrote many text editors, such as Sam and acme; He also studied astronomy and designed gamma ray telescopes. At present, Ken Thompson and rob Parker are still working at Google, thinking about how to bring more contributions to mankind.
Source: Wikipedia, Baidu Encyclopedia
September 2, 1997: IBM announced that it would improve the supercomputer "dark blue" that defeated the world chess champion
In May 1997, dark blue computer defeated Garry Kasparov, the human chess champion, in a highly watched game. IBM, a legendary company, was not complacent, but decided to make the computer faster and more powerful. On September 2, 1997, IBM announced that its RS / 6000 SP parallel supercomputer has increased the speed by 58% due to the adoption of new microprocessors and some software improvements.
Dark blue computer is a super computer developed by IBM for chess. This is the world's first computer chess system, which won a chess game with the world champion under the normal time control. In February 1996, dark blue played its first game against the world champion. However, Kasparov beat dark blue and scored 4-2. Dark blue began to upgrade at that time, and fought Kasparov again in May 1997, winning the game 3.5:2.5, becoming the first computer system in history to defeat the defending world champion in the standard chess game. The victory of the machine marks a new era in the history of chess.
We all know the alphago in Megatron technology a few years ago. What's the difference between alphago and dark blue?
In 1997, the training convolutional neural network did not exist, and the essence of dark blue computer was Monroe Carter search - that is, "manual work". In fact, the principle of dark blue computer is to summarize all the rules of chess manually and program all the possible situations; Alphago integrates deep neural network and distributed parallel computing, and many chess games in the game exceed human expectations. However, if chess is not done, humans will not have the motivation to study the more complex rules of go. Alphago and dark blue have little relevance in algorithm or hardware, but they have a far-reaching impact on the technology tree.
Source: Wikipedia, Baidu Encyclopedia
Galaxy Tab was launched by Samsung in South Korea on September 2, 2010. It is their first tablet. Michael Gartenberg, Samsung's US partner, said at that time: "no company will give up this market to apple without competition. According to a short video released by Samsung on its website, it is difficult to better understand the Samsung Galaxy Tab tablet. We need to really understand the Galaxy Tab. "
Apple monopolized the tablet Market for a long time. At that time, IOS was the best tablet operating system, which met the demands of users at that time and was sought after by most people. Interestingly and coincidentally, on the same day (September 2, 2011) the year after Samsung launched the Galaxy Tab, according to Apple's lawsuit, the German Dusseldorf court ordered Samsung to stop selling its new tablet Galaxy Tab.
Apple has repeatedly accused SamSung of infringing its technology patents, won several decisions of the Dusseldorf district court, and forced Samsung to remove its new Galaxy Tab tablet from the consumer electronics exhibition (IFA) in Berlin, Germany. The war between apple and Samsung lasted seven years, and the end of the patent dispute was before usAugust 24 "today in history" columnRecorded.
Five years ago, the explosion of Samsung Galaxy note 7 once dominated the headlines, which also became the fuse for Samsung's Bank of China sales to gradually fall into the valley. On August 24, shortly after the release of Galaxy note 7, the first explosion of note 7 occurred in South Korea. Samsung then said: users should use the official charger and keep the phone away from the human body when charging. Samsung thought this was caused by improper user operation, and on August 31 a week later, it broke the news of the explosion of Samsung note 7. The message shared on Korean social media has been deleted.
On September 2, 2016, due to multiple explosion reports, Samsung announced the recall of 2.5 million note 7 sold worldwide and delayed sales in unlisted markets, except China. Samsung attributed the accident to a short circuit and fire caused by a battery defect produced by its subsidiary SDI. In addition, Koh Dong Jin, head of Samsung's mobile phone department, and coo Tim Baxter of Samsung North America apologized for the recent battery explosion. The American Consumer Product Safety Association said Samsung did not cooperate with it, but carried out the recall on its own.
In October, Samsung recalled note 7 all over the world and stopped production forever, trying to erase all traces of note 7. At the same time, many questions were left: Why did the recalled Note7 explode after replacing the battery? What are the real defects of the product? Why doesn't the state recall it? Why is there no national public trust authority willing to test? Why does BOC not recall with the world
The answers to some of the truth, like galaxy note 7, are forever sealed in history; However, users' trust in the brand is completely irreparable like this. After the defeat of Samsung and the decline of apple, China's market share has been gradually occupied by domestic mobile phones in recent years. Many Chinese brand mobile phones have entered this fierce market, and some brands have even opened up new territories overseas.
[welcome to contribute] take history as a mirror, you can know the rise and fall. Since the development of computer science, there are many important events and figures. All friends are welcome to build "today in history". Submission email: tangxy@PROG3.COM 。